10 types of magnetic component materials for new energy vehicles

With the gradual increase of market share of new energy vehicles,it is expected that the demand for magnetic components will exceed 3 billion by 2025. According to statistics, the total value of magnetic components for each vehicle is approximately 1200-1500 CNY per vehicle. By 2025, the global market size of new energy vehicles will reach 18-22 billion CNY.

For magnetic component materials in electric vehicles, they can mainly be divided into hard magnetic materials,soft magnetic materials, and functional magnetic materials.

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Magnetic component materials

Magnetic component materials

Compared with soft ferrite, hard ferrite has higher coercivity and remanent magnetization. Adding barium carbonate or strontium carbon to iron oxide can produce hard ferrite.

Compared with rare earth permanent magnet materials, although ferrite permanent magnet materials do not have an advantage in performance, they are still the preferred material in many fields due to their rich raw materials, low price, simple preparation process, and strong oxidation resistance. In some cost sensitive electric vehicle components, such as auxiliary motors, sensors, etc., ferrite magnets are still widely used.

magnetic component materials

Neodymium magnets,also known as NdFeB magnets.It is a permanent magnet made of alloys of neodymium, iron, and boron to form a Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystal structure.

Neodymium magnets are the third generation of rare earth permanent magnet materials. Its maximum magnetic energy product is 52MGOe, making it the strongest magnet currently. It has the characteristic of high remanent magnetization and high magnetic energy product.By using neodymium magnets, the effective and performance of the motor can be significantly improved, allowing electric vehicles to have higher energy utilization efficiency and longer range. In addition, components such as car speakers and auxiliary motors that require permanent magnets to generate magnetic field have significant performance improvements after using neodymium magnets.

The vast majority of electric vehicles, including the Tesla Model 3, use permanent magnet synchronous motors, which consume an average of 3kg of neodymium magnetic materials per vehicle. It is expected that global sales of new energy electric vehicles will exceed 25 million units by 2025,with a market penetration rate of 30%. By 2025, the global consumption of neodymium magnets will reach 75000 metric tons.

magnetic component materials

Samarium cobalt magnets are a collective term for the first and second generation rare earth permanent magnets, which have high coercivity resistance and corrosion resistance, and can operate at temperature up to 250-350℃.

 Although neodymium magnets are widely used in the field of new energy vehicles, samarium cobalt magnets are also used in certain special automotive components due to their unique high-temperature resistance and corrosion resistance.

For example, in some high-performance electric or hybrid vehicles, samarium cobalt magnet motors are used to cope with high or even extreme temperature working environments. These high-performance motors need to be able to maintain stable performance under high temperature conditions to ensure the power output and driving safety of the vehicle.

magnetic component matetrials

Adding hard ferrite magnetic powder to flexible materials can produce flexible magnets after processing. For example, rubber magnets and plastic magnets have good processability and flexibility. They can be easily pasted or fixed on various surfaces, especially suitable for the interior, seals, and other parts of new energy vehicles.

For example, the backrest cover of car seats, carpet fixing, etc. By using flexible magnetic sheets or magnetic tape, these car interior components can be easily and firmly fixed to the body of the vehicle.

By using flexible magnets , it can not only improves the assembly efficiency of components, but also reduce noise and vibration during vehicle driving, improving ride comfort.

magnetic component materials

Soft magnetic ferrite is a ferrous magnetic oxide mainly composed of Fe2O3,  produced by powder metallurgy method. There are several types, including Mn-Zn, Cu-Zn, Ni-Zn, etc. Among them, Mn-Zn ferrite has the highest yield and dosage. Soft magnetic ferrite, as an electronic soft magnetic material with excellent characteristics, low cost, and easy processing, is widely used in OBC equipment, EV charging equipment, HEV power system power conversion, DC-DC converters, etc. of new energy vehicles.

Some electric vehicles are also equipped with wireless charging components for mobile phones and other devices. The magnetic separator in the components is generally made of soft magnetic ferrite, which is an important component of wireless charging component  transmitter and receiver.Magnetic separators can enhance the induced magnetic field, improve the efficiency of electrical energy transmission, and shield coil interference.

magnetic component materials

Metal soft magnetic powder core is a soft magnetic material made by pressing magnetic powder coated with insulating medium. It combines the advantages of metal soft magnetic material and soft magnetic ferrite. Due to the use of ferromagnetic particles in its powder, the saturation magnetic induction strength is high. At the same time, due to the presence of an insulation layer, its electrical resistance is also high.

Metal soft magnetic powder cores are mainly used in inverters and chargers for electric vehicles. The inverter is an important component for converting direct current into alternating current, while the charger is a component that converts alternating current into direct current and charges the battery. Metal soft magnetic powder cores can effectively reduce hysteresis loss and iron loss in these components, improve energy conversion efficiency and charging efficiency.

magnetic component materials

Silicon steel is an iron alloy with a silicon content of 1.0-4.5% and a carbon content of less than 0.08%. In electric vehicles, silicon steel is a commonly used material for manufacturing motor cores, which can effectively reduce the iron less and hysteresis loss of the motor, silicon steel can also be applied to charging stations, battery management systems, and body structural components of electric vehicles.

magnetic component materials

Amorphous alloys are a new generation of soft magnetic materials that compete with silicon steel.

An amorphous metal is a metal with a disordered atomic structure, in contrast to most metals, which have a regular structure. These substances are also called metallic glasses, because one way of making amorphous metals resembles the procedure for making glass, but using metal instead of silica.

Amorphous motor is a new type of motor that uses amorphous alloys to replace traditional silicon steel sheets as iron core materials. Its losses at high frequencies are extremely low. Compared with ordinary motors of the same standard, the volume and mass are greatly reduced, greatly improving the utilization efficiency of energy and resources.

For the same electric vehicle, using an amorphous motor can increase its driving range by more than 30%. And under the same driving range, the battery can save 30% of consumption. In short, amorphous motors will become the next generation of high-efficiency motors to replace traditional motors due to their advantages such as high efficiency and high power density.

magnetic component materials

Magnetic fluid is a liquid magnetic material with unique properties. This material consists mainly of nanoscale ferromagnetic particles, a base carrier liquid (a non-magnetic liquid such as mineral oil, esters, water, etc.), and surfactants (used to prevent magnetic particles from aggregating in the base carrier liquid).

In new energy vehicles, magnetic fluid is used for high-precision sealing of the shaft. A sealing sleeve is installed on the outside of the shaft, and a sealing groove is designed inside the sleeve.  The magnetic fluid is placed in the groove. When an external magnetic field is applied, the magnetic fluid forms a tight seal, effectively isolating the shaft from the external environment and preventing gas or liquid leakage.

The unique feature of this sealing method is its non-contact nature. Traditional mechanical seals often suffer from wear and tear issues, while magnetic fluid seals completely avoid this problem. When the external magnetic field is withdrawn, the magnetic fluid will automatically accumulate in the storage groove below the sealing groove, without flowing or leaking at will.

The self-lubricating and self-cooling properties of magnetic fluid also greatly extend the service life of automotive seals. It can also act as a lubricant while forming a seal, reducing friction and wear on the shaft. At the same time, the good thermal conductivity of magnetic fluid can also help dissipate heat from the shaft, preventing overheating and damage.

magnetic component materials
Mechanical Hard Drive

Magnetic recording materials refer to magnetic materials that use magnetic effects to record, store, and output information such as sound and images. They are divided into magnetic recording medium materials and magnetic head materials.

The new generation of new energy vehicles is almost all developing towards intelligent direction, equipped with a large number of sensors and control systems, which require real-time communication with the external environment to obtain traffic information, navigation data, etc. These data need to be stored in a safe and reliable way for subsequent analysis and processing. As the core component of in-vehicle hard disks, memory cards and other devices, magnetic recording materials provide efficient and stable data storage solutions.

Autonomous driving technology also requires magnetic recording materials to store key data such as map information, driving rules, and vehicle recognition. These data are critical to the decision-making and control of the auto drive system. The high reliability and long-life characteristics of magnetic recording materials ensure the stability and safety of the data.

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