1.China builds first rare earth permanent magnetic levitation line
On August 9, 2022, the world’s first rare earth permanent magnet maglev track was officially opened to traffic in Jiangxi Province, China.The rare earth permanent magnet rail transit system realizes the perfect combination of permanent magnet levitation technology and air rail technology.It is a new technology developed after electromagnetic levitation and superconducting maglev.It is a major achievement of maglev rail system research.
As a new rail transit mode,the permanent magnet maglev rail transit system has advantages in environmental protection,intelligence,safety and cost compared with traditional railways and subways.The successful development of this track system has expanded the application field of magnetic materials and will also provide new choices for the construction mode of public transportation worldwide.
The bogie of the maglev train is made of neodymium magnets,which does not require power consumption.The magnetic field generated by permanent magnet can achieve levitation of the train.During operation,the train does not contact the track,achieving zero friction,which greatly reduces the energy use of the train.In order to solve the key problem of the constantly changing height of the permanent magnetic levitation during the driving process of the train, the research and development team developed a floating eccentric shaft guide wheel structure, making the permanent magnetic levitation air track safer and more intelligent.
2. Train components and design analysis
The rare earth permanent magnet maglev track system mainly consists of track beams,permanent magnet,guide wheels,suspension frames,sensors,etc.
Among them, the track beam is the foundation of the entire track, which needs to withstand the weight of the suspension frame and guide wheels and the impact of their operation.
Permanent magnets are key components for achieving magnetic levitation,generating strong magnetic fields that enable contactless levitation between trains and tracks.
The guide wheel is used to guide the train to travel correctly on the track.It is connected to the track beam through bearings and can rotate freely.The suspension frame is used to support the train and guide wheels.It senses the position and attitude of the train through sensors,and adjusts the controller to maintain stable operation of the train.
The rare earth permanent magnet maglev train has been designed as a suspended “Sky Train”.
This suspended design allows trains to occupy only a portion of the air space during operation,without occupying a large amount of ground space like traditional rail transit.Therefore,it can cross obstacles such as buildings,streets and rivers in the city without affecting ground traffic and buildings.This design not only allows trains to operate on flexible routes,but also reduces urban traffic congestion.
In addition,this type of train has a very broad view.Due to the fact that the train operates in the air passengers can enjoy a widely range of scenery,which make it very suitable for tourist attraction and commercial areas.
3. Technical principle of three type of maglev trains
At the present,maglev trains mainly use three different maglev technologies for operation.They are superconducting magnetic levitation,electromagnetic magnetic levitation and rare earth permanent magnetic levitation.
①Superconducting magnetic levitation utilizes the “pinning effect” in quantum mechanics to achieve magnetic levitation.This technology requires the installation of superconducting coils on tracks and trains, utilizing the magnetic field interaction between them to generate levitation.The advantages of superconducting magnetic levitation are high levitation force,low energy consumption and low noise.But it requires the use of low-temperature coolant to maintain superconductivity,such as liquid nitrogen.
②Electromagnetic levitation utilizes interaction between electromagnets and conductive tracks to generate levitation force.In this technology,the electromagnet generates a strong magnetic field after being electrified,which interacts with the conductive track to generate levitation force. The advantage of electromagnetic levitation are high control accuracy and fast response speed,but it requires a large amount of electrical energy consumption.
③Rare earth permanent magnetic levitation utilizes the characteristics of rare earth permanent magnetic materials to achieve magnetic levitation. This technology requires the use of rare earth permanent magnet materials with high magnetic energy product and high coercivity to generate strong magnetic fields, such as neodymium magnet. The advantages of rare earth permanent magnet maglev are simple structure, stable operation, and low operation and maintenance costs, but the maximum speed of the train can only reach 150Km/h.
Overall,these three magnetic levitation technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages,and the choice of which technology depends on the application scenario and requirements. Superconducting magnetic levitation is suitable for high-speed and low energy consumption transportation systems, electromagnetic magnetic levitation is suitable for situations that require high precision and fast response, and rare earth permanent magnetic levitation is suitable for situations that require simple structure and stable operation.
We hope this article can help you understand the knowledge about magnetic levitation. Our company provides permanent magnets that can achieve permanent magnetic levitation technology. If you are interested in our product or have any other questions, please feel free to contact us.
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